[redis 源码走读] sentinel 哨兵 - 故障转移

2020-09-27

接上一章投票选举 《[redis 源码走读] sentinel 哨兵 - 选举投票》。前面几章已经讲了:各个角色的通信,主客观下线,投票选举,当 sentinel 的 leader 被选出来后,由它来完成 redis 实例的角色转换。


1. 故障转移

故障转移有很多个环节组成,集群中每个 sentinel 都有机会执行,但是只有在选举过程中,赢得选票的人,才能完整完成整个故障转移流程。

1.1. 流程

sentinel 的故障转移流程有几个环节组成,主要可以看它源码定义的几个宏:

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/* 初始状态。*/
#define SENTINEL_FAILOVER_STATE_NONE 0               /* No failover in progress. */
/* 开始进入选举投票状态。*/
#define SENTINEL_FAILOVER_STATE_WAIT_START 1         /* Wait for failover_start_time*/
/* 选出最优 slave。 */
#define SENTINEL_FAILOVER_STATE_SELECT_SLAVE 2       /* Select slave to promote */
/* 提升最优 slave 为新master。 */
#define SENTINEL_FAILOVER_STATE_SEND_SLAVEOF_NOONE 3 /* Slave -> Master */
/* 等待最优 slave 成功晋升:info 回复 role:master。 */
#define SENTINEL_FAILOVER_STATE_WAIT_PROMOTION 4     /* Wait slave to change role */
/* slaves 连接新 master。 */
#define SENTINEL_FAILOVER_STATE_RECONF_SLAVES 5      /* SLAVEOF newmaster */
/* slave 成功晋升 master 后,更新 master <--> slave 的数据结构关系。 */
#define SENTINEL_FAILOVER_STATE_UPDATE_CONFIG 6      /* Monitor promoted slave. */

/* 进入故障转移流程。*/
void sentinelFailoverStateMachine(sentinelRedisInstance *ri) {
    serverAssert(ri->flags & SRI_MASTER);

    /* 确保当前没有故障转移正在执行。*/
    if (!(ri->flags & SRI_FAILOVER_IN_PROGRESS)) return;

    switch (ri->failover_state) {
        case SENTINEL_FAILOVER_STATE_WAIT_START:
            sentinelFailoverWaitStart(ri);
            break;
        case SENTINEL_FAILOVER_STATE_SELECT_SLAVE:
            sentinelFailoverSelectSlave(ri);
            break;
        case SENTINEL_FAILOVER_STATE_SEND_SLAVEOF_NOONE:
            sentinelFailoverSendSlaveOfNoOne(ri);
            break;
        case SENTINEL_FAILOVER_STATE_WAIT_PROMOTION:
            sentinelFailoverWaitPromotion(ri);
            break;
        case SENTINEL_FAILOVER_STATE_RECONF_SLAVES:
            sentinelFailoverReconfNextSlave(ri);
            break;
    }
}

1.2. 测试

3 个 sentinel,3 个 redis 实例,一主两从。关闭主服务,再重新启动主服务,通过 sentinel 日志看看故障转移情况。

  • 测试节点。
node ip port
sentinel A 127.0.0.1 26379
sentinel B 127.0.0.1 26377
sentinel C 127.0.0.1 26378
master 127.0.0.1 6379
slave 127.0.0.1 6378
slave2 127.0.0.1 6377

故障转移测试环节

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#!/bin/sh
...
# 关闭所有 redis 进程。
kill_redis
# 开启所有 sentinel 进程。
start_sentinels
# 打印 sentinel 进程信息。
redis_info redis-sentinel
# 开启所有 redis 进程。
start_redis
# 打印 redis 进程信息。
redis_info redis-server
# 将 6379 端口的 redis 设置为 master。
remaster 6379
# 向 redis 进程获取角色信息。
redis_role
# 向 sentinel 获取角色信息。
get_master_info_from_sentinel 26379
# 等待足够长时间,让 sentinel 发现所有节点,彼此建立通信。
sleep 100
# 关闭 6379 进程。
shutdown_redis 6379
# 等待 sentinel 故障转移成功(一般很快,根据需要设置时间。)
echo 'failover wait for 30s......'
sleep 30
# 模拟将下线的 6379 master 重新上线。
remaster_redis 6379
sleep 5
...
# 查看 sentinel 日志,观察工作流程。
  • sentinel-26379 故障转移日志,它在选举中赢得选票,执行完整的故障转移流程。
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32121:X 30 Sep 2020 15:06:54.145 # oO0OoO0OoO0Oo Redis is starting oO0OoO0OoO0Oo
32121:X 30 Sep 2020 15:06:54.145 # Redis version=5.9.104, bits=64, commit=00000000, modified=0, pid=32121, just started
32121:X 30 Sep 2020 15:06:54.145 # Configuration loaded
# 当前 sentinel 端口为 26379
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:06:54.147 * Running mode=sentinel, port=26379.
# 当前 sentinel runnid: 0400c9**
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:06:54.148 # Sentinel ID is 0400c9170654ecbaeaf98fedb1630486e5f8f5b6
# 修改 sentinel 监控对象,监控端口为 6379 的 master。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:06:54.148 # +monitor master mymaster 127.0.0.1 6378 quorum 2
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:00.211 # -monitor master mymaster 127.0.0.1 6378
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:00.237 # +monitor master mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379 quorum 2
# 设置故障转移有效时间段为 10 秒。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:00.254 # +set master mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379 failover-timeout 10000
# 从 master 6379 中发现 slave 6378。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:00.291 * +slave slave 127.0.0.1:6378 127.0.0.1 6378 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
# 当前 sentinel 通过 hello 频道的订阅信息,发现其它的 sentinel。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:02.271 * +sentinel sentinel 989f0e00789a0b41cff738704ce8b04bad306714 127.0.0.1 26378 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:02.290 * +sentinel sentinel de0ffb0d63f77605db3fccb959f67b65b8fdb529 127.0.0.1 26377 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
# 从 master 6379 中发现 slave 6377。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:10.359 * +slave slave 127.0.0.1:6377 127.0.0.1 6377 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
---
# 发现 master 6379 主观下线。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:51.408 # +sdown master mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
# 确认 master 6379 客观下线。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:51.474 # +odown master mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379 #quorum 3/2
# 开始进入选举环节,选举纪元(计数器) 29。(这个测试日志不是第一次,所以纪元有历史数据。)
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:51.474 # +new-epoch 29
# 尝试对 6379 开启故障转移流程,注意:这里还没正式开启,只有在选举中获胜的 sentinel 才会正式开启。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:51.474 # +try-failover master mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
# 当前 sentinel 没发现其它 sentinel 向它拉票,所以它把选票投给了自己。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:51.494 # +vote-for-leader 0400c9170654ecbaeaf98fedb1630486e5f8f5b6 29
# 26378 把票投给了当前 sentinel。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:51.501 # 989f0e00789a0b41cff738704ce8b04bad306714 voted for 0400c9170654ecbaeaf98fedb1630486e5f8f5b6 29
# 26377 把票投给了当前 sentinel。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:51.501 # de0ffb0d63f77605db3fccb959f67b65b8fdb529 voted for 0400c9170654ecbaeaf98fedb1630486e5f8f5b6 29
# 当前 sentinel 赢得选票,开启对 6379 开启故障转移。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:51.560 # +elected-leader master mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
# 进入筛选最优 slave 环节。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:51.560 # +failover-state-select-slave master mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
# 筛选出最优 slave 为 6377。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:51.626 # +selected-slave slave 127.0.0.1:6377 127.0.0.1 6377 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
# 发送 "slaveof no one" 给 6377 提升它为 master。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:51.626 * +failover-state-send-slaveof-noone slave 127.0.0.1:6377 127.0.0.1 6377 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
# 等待 6378 晋升结果。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:51.697 * +failover-state-wait-promotion slave 127.0.0.1:6377 127.0.0.1 6377 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
# 6377 晋升 master 成功。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:52.273 # +promoted-slave slave 127.0.0.1:6377 127.0.0.1 6377 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
# 进入重置关系环节,连接旧 master 的 slaves 连接新的 master。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:52.273 # +failover-state-reconf-slaves master mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
# 给 6378 发送 "slaveof" 命令,让 slave 6378 连接新 master 6377。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:52.348 * +slave-reconf-sent slave 127.0.0.1:6378 127.0.0.1 6378 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:52.615 # -odown master mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
# slave 6378 接收命令 "slaveof",成功更新配置。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:53.317 * +slave-reconf-inprog slave 127.0.0.1:6378 127.0.0.1 6378 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
# slave 6378 成功连接新 master 6377。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:53.317 * +slave-reconf-done slave 127.0.0.1:6378 127.0.0.1 6378 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
# 连接旧 master 6379 所有的 slave 都处理完了,结束故障转移。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:53.388 # +failover-end master mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
# slave 6377 成功晋升 master,所以要更新当前 master 信息 6379 --> 6377。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:53.388 # +switch-master mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379 127.0.0.1 6377
# master / slave 重新建立联系。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:53.389 * +slave slave 127.0.0.1:6378 127.0.0.1 6378 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6377
# 旧 master 6379 变成了新 master 6377 的 slave。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:53.389 * +slave slave 127.0.0.1:6379 127.0.0.1 6379 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6377
# 重新连接,发现 6379 没上线,标识它为主观下线,因为它不是 master 了,不需要走确认客观下线流程。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:08:23.392 # +sdown slave 127.0.0.1:6379 127.0.0.1 6379 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6377
---
# 当前 sentinel 发现旧 master 6379 重新上线,去掉它主观下线标识。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:10:22.709 # -sdown slave 127.0.0.1:6379 127.0.0.1 6379 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6377
# 旧 master 角色还是 master,被 sentinel 降级为 slave。
32123:X 30 Sep 2020 15:10:42.730 * +convert-to-slave slave 127.0.0.1:6379 127.0.0.1 6379 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6377
  • sentinel-26378 故障转移日志。
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32129:X 30 Sep 2020 15:06:55.149 # oO0OoO0OoO0Oo Redis is starting oO0OoO0OoO0Oo
32129:X 30 Sep 2020 15:06:55.149 # Redis version=5.9.104, bits=64, commit=00000000, modified=0, pid=32129, just started
32129:X 30 Sep 2020 15:06:55.149 # Configuration loaded
# 当前 sentinel 端口为 26378。
32131:X 30 Sep 2020 15:06:55.151 * Running mode=sentinel, port=26378.
32131:X 30 Sep 2020 15:06:55.152 # Sentinel ID is 989f0e00789a0b41cff738704ce8b04bad306714
# 修改 sentinel 监控对象,监控端口为 6379 的 master。
32131:X 30 Sep 2020 15:06:55.152 # +monitor master mymaster 127.0.0.1 6378 quorum 2
32131:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:00.220 # -monitor master mymaster 127.0.0.1 6378
32131:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:00.243 # +monitor master mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379 quorum 2
# 设置故障转移有效时间段为 10 秒。
32131:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:00.259 # +set master mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379 failover-timeout 10000
# 发现 slave 节点 6378。(已知节点会保存在 sentinel.conf 中,启动会加载。)
32131:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:00.284 * +slave slave 127.0.0.1:6378 127.0.0.1 6378 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
# 发现 sentinel 节点。
32131:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:02.290 * +sentinel sentinel de0ffb0d63f77605db3fccb959f67b65b8fdb529 127.0.0.1 26377 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
32131:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:02.305 * +sentinel sentinel 0400c9170654ecbaeaf98fedb1630486e5f8f5b6 127.0.0.1 26379 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
# 发现 slave 节点 6377。
32131:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:10.345 * +slave slave 127.0.0.1:6377 127.0.0.1 6377 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
# 检测到 master 6379 主观下线。
32131:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:51.396 # +sdown master mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
32131:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:51.497 # +new-epoch 29
# 收到 26379 的拉票,选票还没有投给其它人,那选票投给 26379 并选出了 leader 为 26379。
32131:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:51.500 # +vote-for-leader 0400c9170654ecbaeaf98fedb1630486e5f8f5b6 29
# 检测到 master 6379 客观下线。
32131:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:51.500 # +odown master mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379 #quorum 2/2
# 满足开启故障转移条件,但是 26379 先开启了故障转移,那只有等待到一个 failover-timeout 过期才能进行下一轮故障转移。
32131:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:51.500 # Next failover delay: I will not start a failover before Wed Sep 30 15:08:12 2020
# sentinel 26379 已经成功将 slave 6377 晋升为 master,它通过 hello 频道通知其它的 sentinel。
32131:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:52.350 # +config-update-from sentinel 0400c9170654ecbaeaf98fedb1630486e5f8f5b6 127.0.0.1 26379 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
# 更新 master 数据,
32131:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:52.350 # +switch-master mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379 127.0.0.1 6377
# 更新 master <--> slaves 的拓扑关系:
32131:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:52.350 * +slave slave 127.0.0.1:6378 127.0.0.1 6378 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6377
32131:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:52.350 * +slave slave 127.0.0.1:6379 127.0.0.1 6379 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6377
# 6379 没有上线,所以标识为主观下线。
32131:X 30 Sep 2020 15:08:22.354 # +sdown slave 127.0.0.1:6379 127.0.0.1 6379 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6377
# 旧 master 6379 重新上线,当前 sentinel 去掉主观下线标识。
32131:X 30 Sep 2020 15:10:23.166 # -sdown slave 127.0.0.1:6379 127.0.0.1 6379 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6377
  • sentinel-26377 故障转移日志(跟 sentinel-26378 日志差不多,不详细注释了。)
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32138:X 30 Sep 2020 15:06:56.151 # oO0OoO0OoO0Oo Redis is starting oO0OoO0OoO0Oo
32138:X 30 Sep 2020 15:06:56.151 # Redis version=5.9.104, bits=64, commit=00000000, modified=0, pid=32138, just started
32138:X 30 Sep 2020 15:06:56.151 # Configuration loaded
32140:X 30 Sep 2020 15:06:56.155 * Running mode=sentinel, port=26377.
32140:X 30 Sep 2020 15:06:56.156 # Sentinel ID is de0ffb0d63f77605db3fccb959f67b65b8fdb529
32140:X 30 Sep 2020 15:06:56.156 # +monitor master mymaster 127.0.0.1 6378 quorum 2
32140:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:00.227 # -monitor master mymaster 127.0.0.1 6378
32140:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:00.250 # +monitor master mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379 quorum 2
32140:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:00.265 # +set master mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379 failover-timeout 10000
32140:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:00.284 * +slave slave 127.0.0.1:6378 127.0.0.1 6378 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
32140:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:02.271 * +sentinel sentinel 989f0e00789a0b41cff738704ce8b04bad306714 127.0.0.1 26378 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
32140:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:02.305 * +sentinel sentinel 0400c9170654ecbaeaf98fedb1630486e5f8f5b6 127.0.0.1 26379 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
32140:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:10.332 * +slave slave 127.0.0.1:6377 127.0.0.1 6377 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
32140:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:51.371 # +sdown master mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
32140:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:51.498 # +new-epoch 29
32140:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:51.500 # +vote-for-leader 0400c9170654ecbaeaf98fedb1630486e5f8f5b6 29
32140:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:52.349 # +config-update-from sentinel 0400c9170654ecbaeaf98fedb1630486e5f8f5b6 127.0.0.1 26379 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379
32140:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:52.349 # +switch-master mymaster 127.0.0.1 6379 127.0.0.1 6377
32140:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:52.349 * +slave slave 127.0.0.1:6378 127.0.0.1 6378 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6377
32140:X 30 Sep 2020 15:07:52.349 * +slave slave 127.0.0.1:6379 127.0.0.1 6379 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6377
32140:X 30 Sep 2020 15:08:22.379 # +sdown slave 127.0.0.1:6379 127.0.0.1 6379 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6377
32140:X 30 Sep 2020 15:10:22.900 # -sdown slave 127.0.0.1:6379 127.0.0.1 6379 @ mymaster 127.0.0.1 6377

2. 源码流程

2.1. 开启故障转移

满足故障转移条件后,开启故障转移,进入投票选举环节。

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/* 定时检查 master 故障情况情况。*/
void sentinelHandleRedisInstance(sentinelRedisInstance *ri) {
    ...
    if (ri->flags & SRI_MASTER) {
        ...
        /* 是否满足故障转移条件,开启故障转移。 */
        if (sentinelStartFailoverIfNeeded(ri)) {
            ...
        }
        /* 通过状态机,处理故障转移对应各个环节。*/
        sentinelFailoverStateMachine(ri);
        ...
    }
}

/* 是否满足故障转移条件,开启故障转移。 */
int sentinelStartFailoverIfNeeded(sentinelRedisInstance *master) {
    ...
    /* 1. 检测到 master 客观下线。
     * 2. 没有正在对该客观下线的 master 进行故障转移。
     * 3. 需要与一个故障转移相隔一段足够长的时间。*/
    sentinelStartFailover(master);
    return 1;
}

/* 开启故障转移。*/
void sentinelStartFailover(sentinelRedisInstance *master) {
    ...
    master->failover_state = SENTINEL_FAILOVER_STATE_WAIT_START;
    master->flags |= SRI_FAILOVER_IN_PROGRESS;
    master->failover_start_time = mstime() + rand() % SENTINEL_MAX_DESYNC;
    ...
}

2.2. 等待投票结果

开启故障转移后,要经过选举投票环节,确认当前 sentinel 是否在投票中胜出,否则不能执行故障转移的其它流程。

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void sentinelFailoverWaitStart(sentinelRedisInstance *ri) {
    char *leader;
    int isleader;

    /* 统计故障转移票数。*/
    leader = sentinelGetLeader(ri, ri->failover_epoch);
    isleader = leader && strcasecmp(leader, sentinel.myid) == 0;
    sdsfree(leader);

    /* 选举出来的 leader 如果不是自己,或者这次故障转移不是强制执行。
     * 那么不能执行故障转移余下环节。*/
    if (!isleader && !(ri->flags & SRI_FORCE_FAILOVER)) {
        int election_timeout = SENTINEL_ELECTION_TIMEOUT;
        ...
        /* 如果我不是投票的 winner,那么一段时间后,退出故障转移工作流程。*/
        if (mstime() - ri->failover_start_time > election_timeout) {
            sentinelEvent(LL_WARNING, "-failover-abort-not-elected", ri, "%@");
            sentinelAbortFailover(ri);
        }
        return;
    }
    ...
    /* 符合故障转移条件,执行故障转移下一个环节:筛选 master 对应的优质的 slave。 */
    ri->failover_state = SENTINEL_FAILOVER_STATE_SELECT_SLAVE;
    ri->failover_state_change_time = mstime();
    ...
}

/* 退出故障转移流程,恢复相关数据标识。 */
void sentinelAbortFailover(sentinelRedisInstance *ri) {
    serverAssert(ri->flags & SRI_FAILOVER_IN_PROGRESS);
    serverAssert(ri->failover_state <= SENTINEL_FAILOVER_STATE_WAIT_PROMOTION);

    ri->flags &= ~(SRI_FAILOVER_IN_PROGRESS | SRI_FORCE_FAILOVER);
    ri->failover_state = SENTINEL_FAILOVER_STATE_NONE;
    ri->failover_state_change_time = mstime();
    if (ri->promoted_slave) {
        ri->promoted_slave->flags &= ~SRI_PROMOTED;
        ri->promoted_slave = NULL;
    }
}

2.3. 筛选最优 slave

筛选方法:先遍历 master 的 slaves,找出网络连接没有异常的 slave,将它们放进候选数组中,再通过快速排序从候选名单中筛选出最优的 slave。

最优 slave 需要具备条件:

  1. 网络连接没有处于异常状态的。
  2. 优先级小的。
  3. 数据复制偏移量比较大的。
  4. slave runid 字符串比较,小于 0 的。

下面是筛选流程,英文文档:

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/* Select a suitable slave to promote. The current algorithm only uses
 * the following parameters:
 *
 * 1) None of the following conditions: S_DOWN, O_DOWN, DISCONNECTED.
 * 2) Last time the slave replied to ping no more than 5 times the PING period.
 * 3) info_refresh not older than 3 times the INFO refresh period.
 * 4) master_link_down_time no more than:
 *     (now - master->s_down_since_time) + (master->down_after_period * 10).
 *    Basically since the master is down from our POV, the slave reports
 *    to be disconnected no more than 10 times the configured down-after-period.
 *    This is pretty much black magic but the idea is, the master was not
 *    available so the slave may be lagging, but not over a certain time.
 *    Anyway we'll select the best slave according to replication offset.
 * 5) Slave priority can't be zero, otherwise the slave is discarded.
 *
 * Among all the slaves matching the above conditions we select the slave
 * with, in order of sorting key:
 *
 * - lower slave_priority.
 * - bigger processed replication offset.
 * - lexicographically smaller runid.
 *
 * Basically if runid is the same, the slave that processed more commands
 * from the master is selected.
 *
 * The function returns the pointer to the selected slave, otherwise
 * NULL if no suitable slave was found.
 */
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void sentinelFailoverSelectSlave(sentinelRedisInstance *ri) {
    /* 选择优质 slave。 */
    sentinelRedisInstance *slave = sentinelSelectSlave(ri);

    /* 如果 master 没有 slave 那么退出故障转移。 */
    if (slave == NULL) {
        sentinelEvent(LL_WARNING, "-failover-abort-no-good-slave", ri, "%@");
        sentinelAbortFailover(ri);
    } else {
        /* 进入提升角色环节,要将优质 slave 提升为 master。 */
        sentinelEvent(LL_WARNING, "+selected-slave", slave, "%@");
        slave->flags |= SRI_PROMOTED;
        /* 记录需要提升角色的 slave。 */
        ri->promoted_slave = slave;
        /* 进入提升角色环节。 */
        ri->failover_state = SENTINEL_FAILOVER_STATE_SEND_SLAVEOF_NOONE;
        ri->failover_state_change_time = mstime();
        sentinelEvent(LL_NOTICE, "+failover-state-send-slaveof-noone", slave, "%@");
    }
}

sentinelRedisInstance *sentinelSelectSlave(sentinelRedisInstance *master) {
    sentinelRedisInstance **instance =
        zmalloc(sizeof(instance[0]) * dictSize(master->slaves));
    sentinelRedisInstance *selected = NULL;
    int instances = 0;
    dictIterator *di;
    dictEntry *de;
    mstime_t max_master_down_time = 0;

    if (master->flags & SRI_S_DOWN) {
        max_master_down_time += mstime() - master->s_down_since_time;
    }
    max_master_down_time += master->down_after_period * 10;

    /* 遍历客观下线的 master 的 slaves,筛选最优的 slave。 */
    di = dictGetIterator(master->slaves);
    while ((de = dictNext(di)) != NULL) {
        sentinelRedisInstance *slave = dictGetVal(de);
        mstime_t info_validity_time;

        /* 已经下线的 slave 不要选。 */
        if (slave->flags & (SRI_S_DOWN | SRI_O_DOWN)) continue;
        /* 已经断开连接的 slave 不要选。 */
        if (slave->link->disconnected) continue;
        /* 链接不是很好的,已经一段时间没有收到数据包的,不要选。 */
        if (mstime() - slave->link->last_avail_time > SENTINEL_PING_PERIOD * 5) continue;
        /* 优先级为 0 的,不要选。 */
        if (slave->slave_priority == 0) continue;

        /* 如果 master 已经主观下线,那么修改获取 info 信息的有效时间间隔。 */
        if (master->flags & SRI_S_DOWN)
            info_validity_time = SENTINEL_PING_PERIOD * 5;
        else
            info_validity_time = SENTINEL_INFO_PERIOD * 3;

        /* 当获取的 info 信息的有效间间隔太长,不要选。因为在故障转移过程中,
         * sentinel 给 slave 发送 INFO 命令的频率会提高到一秒一次。
         * 详细参考 sentinelSendPeriodicCommands。如果 INFO 命令回复太慢,
         * 说明该 slave 处在异常状态下。*/
        if (mstime() - slave->info_refresh > info_validity_time) continue;
        /* 如果该 slave 与 master 断开连接时间间隔过长,不要选。 */
        if (slave->master_link_down_time > max_master_down_time) continue;

        /* 经过一系列筛选,将满足条件的 slave 添加到候选名单中去。 */
        instance[instances++] = slave;
    }
    dictReleaseIterator(di);
    if (instances) {
        /* 通过快速排序,二次筛选在候选名单里的 slave,选出最优的 slave。 */
        qsort(instance, instances, sizeof(sentinelRedisInstance *),
              compareSlavesForPromotion);
        selected = instance[0];
    }
    zfree(instance);
    return selected;
}

/* 通过快排从 slave 候选名单中筛选出最优 slave。 */
int compareSlavesForPromotion(const void *a, const void *b) {
    sentinelRedisInstance **sa = (sentinelRedisInstance **)a,
                          **sb = (sentinelRedisInstance **)b;
    char *sa_runid, *sb_runid;

    if ((*sa)->slave_priority != (*sb)->slave_priority)
        return (*sa)->slave_priority - (*sb)->slave_priority;

    /* 选最大数据复制偏移量的 slave。 */
    if ((*sa)->slave_repl_offset > (*sb)->slave_repl_offset) {
        return -1; /* a < b */
    } else if ((*sa)->slave_repl_offset < (*sb)->slave_repl_offset) {
        return 1; /* a > b */
    }

    /* 如果上述条件都满足,那么对比候选 slave 的 runid 字符串,进行筛选。*/
    sa_runid = (*sa)->runid;
    sb_runid = (*sb)->runid;
    if (sa_runid == NULL && sb_runid == NULL)
        return 0;
    else if (sa_runid == NULL)
        return 1; /* a > b */
    else if (sb_runid == NULL)
        return -1; /* a < b */
    return strcasecmp(sa_runid, sb_runid);
}

2.4. slave 晋升 master

sentinel leader 给 slave 发送 slaveof 命令,使得 master 客观下线后,原来链接客观下线 master 的 slaves,能重新建立 master <–> slave 的关系。

sentinel leader 给筛选出来的 slave 中发送 slave no one 命令,使得该 slave 成为 master 角色。

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/* 发送命令 "slaveof no one"。 */
void sentinelFailoverSendSlaveOfNoOne(sentinelRedisInstance *ri) {
    int retval;
    ...
    /* sentinel 给筛选出来的 slave 发送 "slaveof no one" 命令,让该 slave 成为 master。
     * sentinel 并不关心命令返回的结果,因为它通过发送 “info” 命令,确认它的角色是否发生改变。 */
    retval = sentinelSendSlaveOf(ri->promoted_slave, NULL, 0);
    if (retval != C_OK) return;
    sentinelEvent(LL_NOTICE, "+failover-state-wait-promotion",
                  ri->promoted_slave, "%@");
    ri->failover_state = SENTINEL_FAILOVER_STATE_WAIT_PROMOTION;
    ri->failover_state_change_time = mstime();
}

/* 通过事务给 slave 发命令,使得 redis 实例间重新建立主从关系。 */
int sentinelSendSlaveOf(sentinelRedisInstance *ri, char *host, int port) {
    ...
    if (host == NULL) {
        host = "NO";
        memcpy(portstr, "ONE", 4);
    }
    ...
    /* 为了安全起见,几条命令,通过事务方式发送。 */
    retval = redisAsyncCommand(ri->link->cc,
                               sentinelDiscardReplyCallback, ri, "%s",
                               sentinelInstanceMapCommand(ri, "MULTI"));
    ...
    /* 给 slave 发 "slaveof" 命令。 */
    retval = redisAsyncCommand(ri->link->cc,
                               sentinelDiscardReplyCallback, ri, "%s %s %s",
                               sentinelInstanceMapCommand(ri, "SLAVEOF"),
                               host, portstr);
    ...
    /* 给 slave 发配置重写命令,上一条命令使得 slaves 之间的关系发生改变
     * (slaveof/replicaof <masterip> <masterport>),
     * redis 需要将其写入 redis.conf 配置文件。 */
    retval = redisAsyncCommand(ri->link->cc,
                               sentinelDiscardReplyCallback, ri, "%s REWRITE",
                               sentinelInstanceMapCommand(ri, "CONFIG"));
    ...
    /* 通知 slave 关闭 normal 和 pubsub 的连接,使得在故障转移过程中,
     * 原来接入的客户端在断开连接后,能够重新获取 master,重新连接。
     * 当前 sentinel 与 slave 的连接,在 slave 回复后,也会断开。
     * 详细参考 networking.c/void clientCommand(client *c) 实现。*/
    for (int type = 0; type < 2; type++) {
        retval = redisAsyncCommand(ri->link->cc,
                                   sentinelDiscardReplyCallback, ri, "%s KILL TYPE %s",
                                   sentinelInstanceMapCommand(ri, "CLIENT"),
                                   type == 0 ? "normal" : "pubsub");
        ...
    }

    /* 提交事务。 */
    retval = redisAsyncCommand(ri->link->cc,
                               sentinelDiscardReplyCallback, ri, "%s",
                               sentinelInstanceMapCommand(ri, "EXEC"));
    ...
    return C_OK;
}

2.5. 等待 slave 晋升成功

当 sentinel leader 给 slave 发送命令后,sentinel leader 需要通过发送 info 命令给 slave,并根据命令的回复内容,确认 slave 是否成功转换为 master。

因为 redis 是异步通信,发送命令给最优 slave 后,slave 会断开所有 “normal” 和 “pubsub” 连接,其它 client 也会重新连接。这个过程需要时间,但是这个过程的时间间隔不能超过 failover_timeout 故障转移时间,否则将退出故障转移流程。


当 slave 回复命令 info 内容,说明已经成功晋升为 master,进入故障转移下一步。

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/* We actually wait for promotion indirectly checking with INFO when the
 * slave turns into a master. */
void sentinelFailoverWaitPromotion(sentinelRedisInstance *ri) {
    /* Just handle the timeout. Switching to the next state is handled
     * by the function parsing the INFO command of the promoted slave. */
    if (mstime() - ri->failover_state_change_time > ri->failover_timeout) {
        sentinelEvent(LL_WARNING, "-failover-abort-slave-timeout", ri, "%@");
        sentinelAbortFailover(ri);
    }
}

/* 当 slave 回复 info,已经成功晋升为 master,进入故障转移下一步。 */
void sentinelRefreshInstanceInfo(sentinelRedisInstance *ri, const char *info) {
    ...
    if ((ri->flags & SRI_SLAVE) && role == SRI_MASTER) {
        if ((ri->flags & SRI_PROMOTED) &&
            (ri->master->flags & SRI_FAILOVER_IN_PROGRESS) &&
            (ri->master->failover_state == SENTINEL_FAILOVER_STATE_WAIT_PROMOTION)) {
            ...
            ri->master->config_epoch = ri->master->failover_epoch;
            /* 进入 SENTINEL_FAILOVER_STATE_RECONF_SLAVES 环节。 */
            ri->master->failover_state = SENTINEL_FAILOVER_STATE_RECONF_SLAVES;
            ri->master->failover_state_change_time = mstime();
            ...
        }
    }
    ...
}

2.6. slaves <–> new master

当最优 slave 成功晋升为 master 后,sentinel leader 再通过 SLAVEOF 命令,让其它的 slave 接入到新的 master 中去。


2.6.1. slave/master 连接状态

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#define SRI_RECONF_SENT (1 << 8)          /* SLAVEOF <newmaster> sent. */
#define SRI_RECONF_INPROG (1 << 9)        /* Slave synchronization in progress. */
#define SRI_RECONF_DONE (1 << 10)         /* Slave synchronized with new master. */
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/* Send SLAVE OF <new master address> to all the remaining slaves that
 * still don't appear to have the configuration updated. */
void sentinelFailoverReconfNextSlave(sentinelRedisInstance *master) {
    dictIterator *di;
    dictEntry *de;
    int in_progress = 0;

    /* 统计正在操作的 slave 个数。 */
    di = dictGetIterator(master->slaves);
    while ((de = dictNext(di)) != NULL) {
        sentinelRedisInstance *slave = dictGetVal(de);
        if (slave->flags & (SRI_RECONF_SENT | SRI_RECONF_INPROG))
            in_progress++;
    }
    dictReleaseIterator(di);

    di = dictGetIterator(master->slaves);
    /* 遍历 slave 进行 reconf,arallel_syncs 限制每次 reconf 的 slave 个数,避免操作失败。 */
    while (in_progress < master->parallel_syncs && (de = dictNext(di)) != NULL) {
        sentinelRedisInstance *slave = dictGetVal(de);
        int retval;

        /* 跳过已经晋升为 master 的 slave 或者已经成功处理 slaveof 命令的 slave。 */
        if (slave->flags & (SRI_PROMOTED | SRI_RECONF_DONE)) continue;

        /* 如果 slave 接收命令 slaveof 后,长时间没有更新配置成功,那么终止对它的 reconf 操作。 */
        if ((slave->flags & SRI_RECONF_SENT) &&
            (mstime() - slave->slave_reconf_sent_time) > SENTINEL_SLAVE_RECONF_TIMEOUT) {
            sentinelEvent(LL_NOTICE, "-slave-reconf-sent-timeout", slave, "%@");
            slave->flags &= ~SRI_RECONF_SENT;
            slave->flags |= SRI_RECONF_DONE;
        }

        /* 跳过已发送 reconf 成功的。 */
        if (slave->flags & (SRI_RECONF_SENT | SRI_RECONF_INPROG)) continue;
        /* 不处理断线的 slave。 */
        if (slave->link->disconnected) continue;

        /* 发送命令 "SLAVEOF <new master>"。 */
        retval = sentinelSendSlaveOf(slave,
                                     master->promoted_slave->addr->ip,
                                     master->promoted_slave->addr->port);
        if (retval == C_OK) {
            /* 更新 reconf 状态。 */
            slave->flags |= SRI_RECONF_SENT;
            slave->slave_reconf_sent_time = mstime();
            sentinelEvent(LL_NOTICE, "+slave-reconf-sent", slave, "%@");
            in_progress++;
        }
    }
    dictReleaseIterator(di);

    /* Check if all the slaves are reconfigured and handle timeout. */
    sentinelFailoverDetectEnd(master);
}

2.6.2. info 回复刷新状态

sentinel leader 给 slave 发送 “slaveof” 命令,使得连接旧的 master 的 slave 去连接新 master。但是 sentinel leader 不会通过 “slaveof” 命令的回复获得结果,而是发完命令后,定时给 slave 发 “info” 命令,从 “info” 命令回复内容中,确认,slave 是否已经与新 masger 成功建立连接。

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void sentinelRefreshInstanceInfo(sentinelRedisInstance *ri, const char *info) {
    ...
    /* 检测 slave 连接新 master 的状态。 */
    if ((ri->flags & SRI_SLAVE) && role == SRI_SLAVE &&
        (ri->flags & (SRI_RECONF_SENT | SRI_RECONF_INPROG))) {
        /* sentinel 收到 slave 的 info 回复,配置成功更新,修改状态为进行中:
         * SRI_RECONF_SENT -> SRI_RECONF_INPROG. */
        if ((ri->flags & SRI_RECONF_SENT) && ri->slave_master_host &&
            strcmp(ri->slave_master_host, ri->master->promoted_slave->addr->ip) == 0 &&
            ri->slave_master_port == ri->master->promoted_slave->addr->port) {
            ri->flags &= ~SRI_RECONF_SENT;
            /* 进入“进行中”状态。 */
            ri->flags |= SRI_RECONF_INPROG;
            sentinelEvent(LL_NOTICE, "+slave-reconf-inprog", ri, "%@");
        }

        /* 当 slave 已经连接上 master 了,更新状态为结束:
         * SRI_RECONF_INPROG -> SRI_RECONF_DONE。 */
        if ((ri->flags & SRI_RECONF_INPROG) &&
            ri->slave_master_link_status == SENTINEL_MASTER_LINK_STATUS_UP) {
            ri->flags &= ~SRI_RECONF_INPROG;
            ri->flags |= SRI_RECONF_DONE;
            sentinelEvent(LL_NOTICE, "+slave-reconf-done", ri, "%@");
        }
    }
    ...
}

2.7. 结束故障转移

检查原连接客观掉线的 slaves 是否已经全部成功连接新 master 了,或者这个环节是否处理超时。出现上述任何一种情况,故障转移都会结束。在故障转移结束前,如果还有剩余的 slaves 没有连上新 master,那么 sentinel leader,会再做一次努力,对它们再次发送 “slaveof” 命令。


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void sentinelFailoverDetectEnd(sentinelRedisInstance *master) {
    int not_reconfigured = 0, timeout = 0;
    dictIterator *di;
    dictEntry *de;
    mstime_t elapsed = mstime() - master->failover_state_change_time;

    /* We can't consider failover finished if the promoted slave is
     * not reachable. */
    if (master->promoted_slave == NULL ||
        master->promoted_slave->flags & SRI_S_DOWN) return;

    /* 统计没有 reconf 的 slave 个数。 */
    di = dictGetIterator(master->slaves);
    while ((de = dictNext(di)) != NULL) {
        sentinelRedisInstance *slave = dictGetVal(de);
        if (slave->flags & (SRI_PROMOTED | SRI_RECONF_DONE)) continue;
        if (slave->flags & SRI_S_DOWN) continue;
        not_reconfigured++;
    }
    dictReleaseIterator(di);

    /* 如果 slave reconf 超时,需要强制结束这个环节。*/
    if (elapsed > master->failover_timeout) {
        not_reconfigured = 0;
        timeout = 1;
        sentinelEvent(LL_WARNING, "+failover-end-for-timeout", master, "%@");
    }

    if (not_reconfigured == 0) {
        sentinelEvent(LL_WARNING, "+failover-end", master, "%@");
        /* 当没有 reconf 的 slave 了进入下一个故障转移环节。*/
        master->failover_state = SENTINEL_FAILOVER_STATE_UPDATE_CONFIG;
        master->failover_state_change_time = mstime();
    }

    /* 如果 slave reconf 超时了,作为 sentinel leader 为了提高 slave reconf 的成功率。
     * 在故障转移结束前,再做最后一次努力:对没有连接新 master 的 slave,再发一次 "slaveof" 命令。*/
    if (timeout) {
        dictIterator *di;
        dictEntry *de;

        di = dictGetIterator(master->slaves);
        while ((de = dictNext(di)) != NULL) {
            sentinelRedisInstance *slave = dictGetVal(de);
            int retval;

            if (slave->flags & (SRI_PROMOTED | SRI_RECONF_DONE | SRI_RECONF_SENT)) continue;
            if (slave->link->disconnected) continue;

            retval = sentinelSendSlaveOf(slave,
                                         master->promoted_slave->addr->ip,
                                         master->promoted_slave->addr->port);
            if (retval == C_OK) {
                sentinelEvent(LL_NOTICE, "+slave-reconf-sent-be", slave, "%@");
                slave->flags |= SRI_RECONF_SENT;
            }
        }
        dictReleaseIterator(di);
    }
}

2.8. 更新新 master 信息

sentinel 存储节点信息的拓扑结构(如下图),所以当故障转移成功,sentinel leader 理应更新对应节点的数据和数据结构关系。

sentinelRedisInstance 节点保存关系

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/* 定时监控节点的工作情况。 */
void sentinelHandleDictOfRedisInstances(dict *instances) {
    ...
    di = dictGetIterator(instances);
    while ((de = dictNext(di)) != NULL) {
        sentinelRedisInstance *ri = dictGetVal(de);
        ...
        if (ri->flags & SRI_MASTER) {
            ...
            if (ri->failover_state == SENTINEL_FAILOVER_STATE_UPDATE_CONFIG) {
                /* 故障转移结束,更新 master 最新信息。*/
                switch_to_promoted = ri;
            }
        }
    }
    if (switch_to_promoted)
        sentinelFailoverSwitchToPromotedSlave(switch_to_promoted);
    dictReleaseIterator(di);
}

/* 故障转移成功以后,新的 master 信息替换旧的。*/
void sentinelFailoverSwitchToPromotedSlave(sentinelRedisInstance *master) {
    sentinelRedisInstance *ref = master->promoted_slave ? master->promoted_slave : master;

    sentinelEvent(LL_WARNING, "+switch-master", master, "%s %s %d %s %d",
                  master->name, master->addr->ip, master->addr->port,
                  ref->addr->ip, ref->addr->port);

    sentinelResetMasterAndChangeAddress(master, ref->addr->ip, ref->addr->port);
}

/* 重置旧 master 数据,建立新的 master <--> slave 数据关系。*/
int sentinelResetMasterAndChangeAddress(sentinelRedisInstance *master, char *ip, int port) {
    sentinelAddr *oldaddr, *newaddr;
    sentinelAddr **slaves = NULL;
    int numslaves = 0, j;
    dictIterator *di;
    dictEntry *de;

    newaddr = createSentinelAddr(ip, port);
    if (newaddr == NULL) return C_ERR;

    /* 将原来连接 master 的 slaves 重新放进一个 slaves 数组。 */
    di = dictGetIterator(master->slaves);
    while ((de = dictNext(di)) != NULL) {
        sentinelRedisInstance *slave = dictGetVal(de);

        /* 如果是晋升 master 的 slave,不要放进数组。*/
        if (sentinelAddrIsEqual(slave->addr, newaddr)) continue;
        slaves = zrealloc(slaves, sizeof(sentinelAddr *) * (numslaves + 1));
        slaves[numslaves++] = createSentinelAddr(slave->addr->ip, slave->addr->port);
    }
    dictReleaseIterator(di);

    /* 我们把旧的 master 添加到 slaves 数组,因为旧的 master 有可能重新上线,
     * sentinel 会给它发 "slaveof" 命令,让它角色下降为 slave。*/
    if (!sentinelAddrIsEqual(newaddr, master->addr)) {
        slaves = zrealloc(slaves, sizeof(sentinelAddr *) * (numslaves + 1));
        slaves[numslaves++] = createSentinelAddr(master->addr->ip, master->addr->port);
    }

    /* 重置旧 master 数据,填充新的信息,使得旧 master 变成新 master。 */
    sentinelResetMaster(master, SENTINEL_RESET_NO_SENTINELS);
    oldaddr = master->addr;
    master->addr = newaddr;
    master->o_down_since_time = 0;
    master->s_down_since_time = 0;

    /* 新建 slaves 实例与新 master 建立关系。*/
    for (j = 0; j < numslaves; j++) {
        sentinelRedisInstance *slave;

        slave = createSentinelRedisInstance(NULL, SRI_SLAVE, slaves[j]->ip,
                                            slaves[j]->port, master->quorum, master);
        releaseSentinelAddr(slaves[j]);
        if (slave) sentinelEvent(LL_NOTICE, "+slave", slave, "%@");
    }
    zfree(slaves);

    /* Release the old address at the end so we are safe even if the function
     * gets the master->addr->ip and master->addr->port as arguments. */
    releaseSentinelAddr(oldaddr);
    sentinelFlushConfig();
    return C_OK;
}

2.9. 旧 master 重新上线

原 master 恢复正常,重新连接 sentinel,这时候集群已经产生新的 master 了,所以旧 master,需要被 sentinel 降级为 slave。

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/* info 命令回复 */
void sentinelRefreshInstanceInfo(sentinelRedisInstance *ri, const char *info) {
    ...
    /* sentinel 将旧 master 记录为 slave 了,旧 master 通过 info 还上报 master 角色。 
     * 需要发送 "slaveof" 命令将它降级为 slave。*/
    if ((ri->flags & SRI_SLAVE) && role == SRI_MASTER) {
        /* If this is a promoted slave we can change state to the
         * failover state machine. */
        if ((ri->flags & SRI_PROMOTED) &&
            (ri->master->flags & SRI_FAILOVER_IN_PROGRESS) &&
            (ri->master->failover_state == SENTINEL_FAILOVER_STATE_WAIT_PROMOTION)) {
            ...
        } else {
            mstime_t wait_time = SENTINEL_PUBLISH_PERIOD * 4;
            if (!(ri->flags & SRI_PROMOTED) &&
                sentinelMasterLooksSane(ri->master) &&
                sentinelRedisInstanceNoDownFor(ri, wait_time) &&
                mstime() - ri->role_reported_time > wait_time) {
                /* 发送 "slaveof" 命令。 */
                int retval = sentinelSendSlaveOf(ri,
                                                 ri->master->addr->ip,
                                                 ri->master->addr->port);
                if (retval == C_OK)
                    sentinelEvent(LL_NOTICE, "+convert-to-slave", ri, "%@");
            }
        }
    }
    ...
}

3. 参考